DOD 4245.7-M PDF
TRANSITION FROM DEVELOPMENT TO PRODUCTION. (Includes Change 1 Dated 13 Feb 89). SEPTEMBER Assistant Secretary of Defense Acquisition. This Manual is issued under the authority of DoD. Development to Production,” January 19, It. DOR M. Directive provides. , “Transition from. Page 1. Page 2. Page 3. Page 4. Page 5. Page 6. Page 7. Page 8. Page 9. Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page Page
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Reston, VA U. TQM is a managed process of continuous improvement.
DoD M DoD TRANSITION FROM DEVELOPMENT TO PRODUCTION
It calls for cultural change in organization through instituting a broader vision of management encompassing improvement of every process critical to organizational success. TQM integrates fundamental management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under a disciplined approach focused on continuous process improvement. Each TQM element is institutionalized by implementing a structured approach to continuous process improvement through training at each level, starting with top manage- ment.
Essential TQM elements include: Total Quality Management Model 13 Presents a seven-step model for continuous process improvement. The critical role of management is emphasized. The use of a tool s depends on the circumstance.
Some of these initiatives are not entirely compatible with the TQM philosophy. Additional Information 77 Presents a list of suggested readings. Definition Total Quality Management TQM consists of continuous process improvement activities involving everyone in an organization-managers and workers-in a totally integrated effort toward improving performance at every level. This im- proved performance is directed toward satisfying such cross-functional goals as quality, cost, schedule, mission need, and suitability.
TQM integrates fundamen- tal management techniques, existing improvement efforts, and technical tools under a disciplined approach focused on continuous process improvement.
The focus is to: Know Your Customers User satisfaction is the ultimate requirement to which everyone must strive whether the user is an internal customer or an external customer. The only way the user can ultimately be satisfied is if the product or service meets the user’s need or intended use at a reasonable cost.
The ultimate users are the officers and servicemen in the field. They require products and services that satisfy their expectations for technical performance including logistic supportschedule available when neededand cost within budget. Set True Customer Requirements Knowledge of the user’s needs and expectations internal and external is a pre- requisite to satisfying them.
It is critical that these requirements be understood and reflected accurately in specifications for products, services, and processes. The manufacturing oriented definition of quality, “conformance to requirements,” xod leads to user satisfaction when there is alignment between user expectations dodd user requirements.
Best Manufacturing Practices: DoD M: Transition from Development to Production
For example, meeting procurement specifications becomes a concern to be pur- sued only after the user’s requirements have been defined. Quality products and services result from processes that meet user requirements.
Thus, in procurement, conformance to Government or industry specifications will result in 4245.7m products only when those specifications properly identify user requirements. If they do not, blind adherence to specifications can easily become counterproduc- tive.
It is then that many problems can be prevented. There- after, the leverage of prevention is reduced as correction of problems-a more costly procedure-becomes the dominant mode. A key aspect of this concept is de- signing products and services that can be produced with high-yield within the ca- pability of the manufacturing or service process.
Designs that are immune to manufacturing and operational use variability are said to be robust. Whatever the exact numbers are, they illustrate the extraordinary opportunity for reducing costs through improvement of quality.
Much of the high 4245.7-n of poor quality comes from processes that are doc to be wasteful. This waste is often chronic and is accepted as the normal cost of doing business. The conventional approach to quality is not to get rid of chronic waste but to prevent things from getting worse by “putting 425.7-m the fires. True breakthroughs are hard to pre- dict. While waiting for a breakthrough to arrive, a company’s level of perfor- mance often declines because of a lack of sustained attention.
The Japanese place a high priority on continuous incremental improvements called Kaizen that, over time, leapfrog the competitors who are depending on the “Hail Mary touch- down pass.
Taken 42457-m, infrequent innovations and continuous improvement result in superior productivity gains.
Integrated Product and Process Development Bibliography
Applying Kaizen to routine work is the key to success. Working on special projects is important, but in the long run, it is the day-to-day application of Kaizen to routine work that gets results. Every work activity also called work function or work process has inputs and outputs. Critical points in the process can be selected, and meas- urements can be taken at the input, at the output, and within the process.
These measurements help identify the most serious problems to be resolved. Tools such as histograms and Pareto diagrams help to determine the most likely cause of the problems leading to waste. Techniques such as brainstorming, experimentation, or cause-and-effect analysis arc used to develop alternatives and arrive at solutions.
Finally, corrective action is taken to resolve the problems and improve a process. This cycle is repeated indefinitely, resulting in a continuous quality improvement process. An example is variation reduction. Ideally, all products should be built to nominal dimensions.
Unfortunately, this is not realistic; therefore, tolerances come with each nominal. However, variations in parameters do contribute to higher costs of quality and lower reliability. The latter is often due to the effect of the “stacking of tolerances.
For example, the effects of manufacturing variation can be minimized by appro- priate design choices. Such a design is said to be a robust design because it has been desensitized to manufacturing variation. People often think that 99 percent quality is good enough. However, at this level, there would be 5, incorrect surgical operations per week and 2 short or long landings at most major airports each day-not an encouraging prospect for anyone who flies or requires surgery.
Some think that the often-used criterion of 3 sigma variation Even at this level, one would only expect 1 good unit out of every 15 units for a product composed of 1, parts. This is being achieved in progressive companies by: Considerations such as culture, incentives, teamwork, training, and work involve- ment are typical.
The optimum effectiveness of TQM results from an appropriate mix of the social and technical systems. It is common practice to emphasize the technical aspects of improvement-new machine tools, computers-with less em- phasis on the people and their role in the process. Improving quality and productivity to achieve competitiveness re-emphasizes the need for an enterprise to capture the potential inherent in their workforce by enabling each employee to do his or her job right the first time.
This requires that top management demonstrate to all employees that they are personally committed and continuously pursue efforts to ever-improve quality. The organization must provide an environment in which all employees will vol- untarily cooperate to achieve the organizational objectives.
This requires that management accept the idea that employees can and want to contribute. Manage- ment thus flows ideas and goals down and encourages the flow of ideas up. Employees will expend the necessary effort if they perceive that their perform- ance will lead to desired rewards.
Rewards are both extrinsic salary, bonuses, and work security and intrinsic meaningful work, responsibility for outcomes, and feedback on the results of work activities.
Management must demonstrate by their actions that quality is extremely important and support employee involvement in quality improvement efforts. Group activities are an effective way to tap the human resource to achieve quality improvement. Employees gain pride in their work and develop a personal stake in the achievement of excellence in quality and productivity. Group activities are also an effective way to manage the interface between func- tional disciplines.
Various names have been given to the team approach like simultane- ous engineering and concurrent design. These teams can range from 4 mem- bers to 20 members and can have representation from every function in the or- ganization. What distinguishes TQM from other improvement strategies is its un- flagging dedication to: This guide provides a seven-step sequential model that will lead to continuous performance improvement.
Subsequent pages provide information on using each of these steps. Each step involves a series of well defined, straightforward tasks which lead directly into the actions required in the subsequent steps.
Since the improvement process is to be continuous, the procedure may be repeated as desired. TQM requires management to exercise the leadership to establish the conditions for the process to flourish. The new culture is developed and operated so that all the people, working together, can maximize their contribution as in- dividuals to the organization’s objective of excellence. Climate for continuous improvement. ROI a performance measure. Use of a systematic approach to seek out, understand, and satisfy both internal and external customer requirements.
Partnership Deliberate balance of long-term goals with successive short- term objectives Understanding and continually improving the process. Predominantly partici- pative and interdisciplinary problem-solving and decision-making based on substantive data Management and employee involvement; work teams; integrated functions Open style with clear and consistent objectives, which encourages group-derived continuous improvement Communicate, consult, delegate, coach, mentor, remove barriers, and establish trust Individual and group recognition and rewards, negotiated en ten a.
Data used to understand and continuously improve processes. The organization needs to know of its current position before it determines where it wants to go. Benchmarking is a tool that will: This matrix or one of your own can be used to assess the progress of your organization in implementing TQM. Commitment entails more than new policies, directives, letters, and speeches.
The workforce judges commitment of top management by the behaviors they ex- hibit. Management must provide the leadership to: Persistent, disciplined application of continu- ous improvement methodology is a must. Knowing what TQM is all about and knowing what tools and techniques are availabile are necessary for success, but not sufficient for achieving it.
Having the discipline to work on TQM day after day so it becomes a new way of life is the key factor for success. A disciplined approach seems deceptively simple to achieve, but it is ex- ceedingly difficult to execute.
For example, most people know that personal fitness can be maintained by proper earing habits and exercise, but they cannot maintain the discipline required for well-being in their daily lives even though their lives are at stake.